Explained: 1-phase charging or 3-phase charging?
When purchasing a charging station, it is possible that you can no longer see the forest for the trees. First of all, there are many different brands of charging stations, but the poles also differ in specifications and functionalities. In this blog I will explain the difference between 1-phase charging and 3-phase charging.
As a result of the previous blog I received a number of questions. In my opinion enough reason to write a little further about purchasing a charging point at home. Many people wonder what a smart choice is. Am I going to have a 1-phase charging point installed or do I choose a 3-phase charging point. This choice depends on a number of aspects, for some people the price can be a consideration, but in some cases the layout of the meter cupboard is also a guiding principle for the choice that must be made. Below I try to create some clarity in the choice you can make between a 1-phase charging point or a 3-phase charging point.
The difference between 1 phase and 3 phase
To explain this difference properly, we look at the meter cupboard in the house. Here it is determined whether a home is equipped with a 1-phase group box or 3-phase group box. The group box can be a limiting factor to make the right choice as to which type of charging point you want to have installed. Some people can see at a glance what type of group box we are dealing with, other people have no idea what they see when the meter box opens.
You can recognize the number of phases by two points. You can recognize a 1-phase distribution box when two wires come out from the bottom of the distribution box, the phase and the neutral. However, if four wires come out of the group box, you know that you have a 3-phase group box. Unfortunately, this is not always visible, so you do not immediately have clarity whether you have 1-phase or 3-phase.
In addition to the number of wires, you can also recognize the number of phases by the information on the kWh meter of the grid operator. If you look at the meter you can read the values as in figure 1. If the meter says 220 / 230V, you know that you have a 1-phase connection.
Nowadays you will find a 3-phase connection in more and more homes. If the meter has the information, 3×220 / 230V, 380 / 400V or 380V, as in picture 2. Then you are dealing with a 3-phase connection.
Do I opt for a 1-phase or 3-phase charging point?
The charging capacity of a charging station is indicated in the term Kilowatt (kW). The charging capacity depends on the connection at home as described above. The capacity of the charging point also plays an important role here. When choosing a charging station, you can choose from a 1-phase and a 3-phase charging point. In Jip and Janneke: with a 1-phase charging point, the power goes through 1 wire and with a 3-phase charging point through 3 wires. The charging capacity of a 3-phase charging station is often higher than that of a 1-phase charging point. The car can also be a determining factor when charging on 1-phase or 3-phase, but more on that later. You can often say that the car with a 3-phase charging point will charge faster than with a 1-phase charging point.
How does a 1-phase charging point work?
The name actually says it all, this charging point works on a 1-phase connection. This type of charging point uses the standard 230V connection in your home. Often the maximum current for 1 phase in the meter cupboard is 16A, which brings the maximum charging capacity of a 1-phase charging station to 3.7kW. A 60kW battery is charged with this charging capacity in about 16 hours, which is quite long. In some homes there is a larger connection from the network operator, if that is the case then you have a maximum current of 32A on 1-phase available. In that case, you can use a maximum charging power of 7.4kW and charge a car in half the aforementioned time.
How does a 3-phase charging point work?
If your car is suitable for charging with a 3-phase charging station, then it might be wise to use it as well. For this you do need a 3-phase connection in the meter cupboard. In contrast to a 1-phase charging station, which uses 230V, a 3-phase charging station uses three-phase current (400V). With a maximum current of 16A, a 3-phase charging station delivers a charging power of 11 kW, which is three times faster than a 1-phase charging station. A battery with a capacity of 60 kW is then charged in less than 6 hours (instead of 16 hours).
Incidentally, the 3-phase charging stations are only available with a charging cable with a type 2 plug on the charging side. So there are no 3-phase charging stations with a type 1 plug on the charging side.
How do I deal with overload when charging my car?
However, with the powers that electric cars demand today and the energy consumption in the home, there is a chance that you will overload your network. The result: power failure due to overload. In addition to an electric car, you often also have a washing machine, dishwasher